Center  for  Epidemiological  Studies  Depression  Scale  (CES-D)   


The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is a 20-item measure designed to assess depressive symptoms in the general population.
 
Items are rated for the past week using a four-point scale for duration (from “rarely or none of the time” to “most or all of the time”).
 
The CES-D has good psychometric properties and has been used in a variety of contexts, including community samples and clinical samples with both medical and psychiatric illnesses (Radloff, 1977).